All vines are part of the Vitis genus which is derived from the Vitaceae family. The Vitis genus includes approx 60 species and they are usually seperated into two sections, Euvities and Muscadinia. From the Euvites sub-genera comes the main species of vine that is responsible for most of the world's wine production Vitis Vinifera. This gives us some of the classic grape varieties such as:
Red Grape White Grape
Cabernet Sauvignon Chardonnay
Garnacha Tinta/Grenache Noir Chenin Blanc
Pinot Noir Riesling
Sangiovese Sauvignon Blanc
There are a few species that are also important to wine production such as Vitis labrusca, Vitis riparia and Vitis berlandieri which are often used for their strong rootstocks that Vitis Vinifera can then be grafted onto. This makes it more resistant to cold weather and Phylloxera - a microscopic insect that destroys the roots and leaves of the grapevine.